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Typhoid is a common disease transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Salmonella enterica.

The disease has received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever and pythogenic fever. The name typhoid means "resembling typhus" and comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus. Despite this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and are caused by different species of bacteria.